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Labor Force Estimates (Seasonally Adjusted)April
2024
Rank2023
Ann. Avg.
Rank2018
Ann. Avg.
Rank
Total Labor Force3,378,923173,401,387163,392,57915
Employed3,257,417173,288,017163,276,80515
Unemployed121,50615113,37016115,77417
Unemployment Rate3.6213.3233.433

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Labor Force Characteristics in 2023
Based on Noninstitutional Population, Age 16 and Over
Total
(000)
RankPercent
Distribution
Rank% of Pop.
in Category
Rank
Total Labor Force3,41017100.0% 63.2%26
Men
Women
1,818
1,592
16
17
53.3%
46.7%
19
32
68.5%
58.1%
23
25
Employment3,29017100.0% 61.0%26
Men
Women
1,752
1,538
16
17
53.3%
46.7%
16
34
66.0%
56.1%
22
25
Unemployment12016100.0% 2.2%15
Men
Women
65
55
15
15
54.2%
45.8%
31
20
2.5%
2.0%
17
14
Unemployment Rate3.519
Men
Women
3.6
3.4
22
19

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Occupational Employment and Wages in 2023
(SOC classification system)
NumberRankPercent
Distribution
RankMedian
Annual Wage
Rank
All Occupations3,156,74016100.0% 45,47034
Management Occupations161,640205.1%44100,71032
Business and Financial Operations Occupations150,610224.8%4268,46040
Computer and Mathematical Occupations68,060232.2%3880,91040
Architecture and Engineering Occupations50,810181.6%2881,62034
Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations21,180210.7%3565,31036
Community and Social Services Occupations49,490171.6%2447,49041
Legal Occupations17,130230.5%4382,04022
Education, Training, and Library Occupations159,750185.1%4249,82041
Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations35,770201.1%3144,96045
Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations202,560156.4%2275,16038
Healthcare Support Occupations118,030193.7%3335,93030
Protective Service Occupations61,830182.0%3247,87033
Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations275,120178.7%2328,60036
Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations87,170172.8%3335,17026
Personal Care and Service Occupations50,520231.6%4629,84034
Sales and Related Occupations272,480178.6%2634,92035
Office and Administrative Support Occupations360,5001711.4%4041,11029
Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations3,480280.1%2839,82015
Construction and Extraction Occupations131,890164.2%2658,66018
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations144,800124.6%1154,34024
Production Occupations363,050711.5%144,61024
Transportation and Material Moving Occupations370,8701211.7%239,88029

May '2023' Estimates
N/A = Not available
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

UnionsNumberRank% of
All Workers
Rank
Members of Unions
2023245,000178.0%28
2022223,000177.4%29
2021256,000159.0%25
2020235,000178.3%29
2019249,000168.3%30
2018269,000158.8%29
2017266,000158.9%27
2016304,0001410.4%24
2015283,0001410.0%25
2014299,0001510.7%24
2013249,000159.3%28
2012246,000159.1%28
2011302,0001511.3%22
2010279,0001510.9%25
% Chg. 2010 to 2023-12.2%37
Represented by Unions
2023278,000159.1%30
2022260,000168.6%31
2021290,0001510.2%24
2020270,000179.5%28
2019296,000159.8%27
2018283,000159.3%30
2017289,000159.7%29
2016335,0001411.4%24
2015319,0001411.3%26
2014335,0001412.0%25
2013275,0001510.3%30
2012269,0001510.0%30
2011333,0001512.4%26
2010313,0001512.2%25
% Chg. 2010 to 2023-11.2%36

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

CES Not Seasonally Adjusted Employment in April 2024
NAICS based data by place of work
EmploymentPercent
Distribution
Rank% Change
April 2023
Rank
00Total Nonfarm3,275,400100.0% 1.4%28
05Total Private2,838,30086.7%71.4%20
06Goods Producing703,60021.5%10.5%31
07Service-Providing2,571,80078.5%511.7%20
08Private Service Providing2,134,70065.2%421.6%18
10Natural Resources and Mining5,5000.2%24-5.2%45
15Natural Resources, Mining, & Construction172,9005.3%254.7%11
20Construction167,4005.1%225.0%12
30Manufacturing530,70016.2%1-0.8%36
40Trade, Transportation, and Utilities631,00019.3%140.5%27
50Information26,5000.8%49-0.4%12
55Financial Activities148,6004.5%420.7%19
60Professional and Business Services367,30011.2%380.9%17
65Educational and Health Services514,30015.7%294.2%23
70Leisure and Hospitality314,8009.6%341.1%30
80Other Services132,2004.0%112.4%21
90Government437,10013.3%451.9%36

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Employment Survey (CES)

Annual Covered Employment and Wages over Time (NAICS)EstablishmentsJobsAverage Wage
per Job (*adj)
Rank% of U.S.
Avg Wage
2022186,1863,113,419$58,0523582.9%
2021178,7003,010,658$59,3673481.3%
2020172,6472,918,792$58,7513781.2%
2019168,9163,077,767$55,8543782.4%
2018167,6273,051,879$55,4643683.1%
2017164,7273,018,177$55,1503583.4%
2016162,2162,987,091$54,3713883.2%
2015159,3032,941,991$54,2093982.9%
2014158,3332,890,758$52,6043982.8%
2013159,3202,849,311$52,3363883.6%
2012160,0582,812,347$52,5673783.7%
10-Year Change26,128301,072$5,485
10-Year Percent Change16.3%10.7%10.4%

*Adj = Adjusted for Inflation; D = Non-Disclosable Data; N/A = Not Available
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Annual Industry Distribution of Jobs and Avg. Wage in 2022EstablishmentsJobsPercent
Distribution
Annual Average Wage
per Job
Rank
Total Covered Employment and Wages186,1863,113,419100.0%$58,05235
Private180,5172,733,49287.8%$58,59434
Agri., forestry, hunting2,06115,9900.5%$47,26914
Mining3025,3500.2%$81,25531
Construction16,393156,3635.0%$68,84828
Manufacturing9,452541,11617.4%$72,41221
Wholesale trade14,454129,6294.2%$81,64935
Retail trade20,906315,59410.1%$35,99235
Transportation, warehousing7,791181,0785.8%$55,88931
Utilities63615,0820.5%$103,56731
Information3,38332,7621.1%$66,12847
Finance and Insurance11,544103,3183.3%$85,36741
Real Estate, rental, leasing7,61537,3161.2%$60,98526
Professional, technical services24,868142,9294.6%$83,70541
Mgmt. of companies, enterprises1,32035,6791.1%$117,72132
Administrative, waste services11,967192,1336.2%$44,39046
Educational services3,729241,1837.7%$49,93540
Health care, social assistance16,278444,98014.3%$62,14225
Arts, entertainment, recreation2,46739,7411.3%$41,19519
Accommodation and food services14,162266,2378.6%$21,55842
Other services, exc. public admin.13,70889,2552.9%$40,91647
Public administration2,837127,6434.1%$57,14444

D = Non-Disclosable Data; N/A = Not Available
Note: Industries are NAICS-based.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

BEA Major Sectors
in 2023 (by place of work)
2023 Earnings ($000)Avg Earnings
per Job
Rank2022 JobsPercent
Distribution
in State
Percent
Distribution
in U.S.
Total by place of work$289,033,323$69,804254,140,665100.0%100.0%
Wage and Salary$203,916,359$62,134363,281,89379.3%74.4%
Proprietors$42,682,123$49,7015858,77220.7%25.6%
    Farm$2,815,946$59,190947,5751.1%0.8%
    Nonfarm$39,866,177$49,1456811,19719.6%24.8%
Farm$3,293,876$57,458857,3271.4%1.2%
Nonfarm$285,739,447$69,977254,083,33898.6%98.8%
Private$254,144,121$69,579203,652,62188.2%87.4%
Forestry, fishing, etc.DDN/ADD0.5%
21 MiningDDN/ADD0.5%
22 Utilities$2,113,708$155,4773613,5950.3%0.3%
23 Construction$19,140,227$83,15623230,1735.6%5.6%
31-33 Manufacturing$53,143,482$95,26322557,86013.5%6.4%
42 Wholesale Trade$15,243,861$107,80423141,4043.4%3.2%
44-45 Retail Trade$16,149,863$41,08839393,0589.5%9.2%
48-49 Trans. and warehousing$14,347,045$56,36125254,5586.1%5.4%
51 Information$2,842,965$71,3044139,8711.0%1.8%
52 Finance and insurance$12,412,056$68,06632182,3544.4%6.1%
53 Real Estate and rental and leasing$17,882,612$98,1402182,2154.4%5.6%
54 Professional, technical services$19,804,340$92,78729213,4385.2%7.5%
55 Management of companies, enterprises$5,186,268$126,1443041,1141.0%1.4%
56 Administrative and waste services$11,738,474$47,64941246,3515.9%6.1%
61 Educational services$4,032,420$45,6952788,2462.1%2.3%
62 Health care, social assistance$36,927,951$80,31011459,81911.1%11.1%
71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation$2,522,022$35,7693270,5081.7%2.1%
72 Accommodation and food services$8,849,974$31,04944285,0296.9%6.9%
81 Other services, exc. public admin.$10,669,246$45,85635232,6685.6%5.5%
NA Gov. and gov. enterprises$31,595,326$73,35547430,71710.4%11.4%

D = Not shown to avoid disclosure of confidential information, but the estimates for this item are included in the totals.
N/A = Not available or not applicable
Note: Major sectors are NAICS-based.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)